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However, both perfect and monopolistic competition are very special and unusual market arrangements. Prior to the advent of game theory, azartplay казино онлайн, economists were severely limited in the class of circumstances to which they could straightforwardly apply their models.

Philosophers share на какие играх можно заработать деньги economists a professional interest in the conditions and techniques for the maximization of welfare. In addition, philosophers have a special concern with the logical justification of actions, and azartplay казино онлайн actions must be justified by reference to their expected outcomes.

In doing this, we will need to introduce, azartplay казино онлайн and illustrate the basic elements and techniques of game theory. An economic agent is, by definition, an entity with preferences. Game theorists, like economists and philosophers studying rational decision-making, describe these by means of azartplay казино онлайн abstract concept called utility.

This refers to some ranking, on some specified scale, of the subjective welfare or change in subjective welfare that an agent derives from an object or an event.

For example, we might evaluate the relative welfare of countries (which программы игр деньги might model as agents for some purposes) by reference to their per capita incomes, and we azartplay казино онлайн evaluate the relative welfare of an animal, in the context of predicting and explaining its behavioral dispositions, by reference to its expected evolutionary fitness.

In the case of people, it is most typical in economics and applications of game theory to evaluate their relative welfare by reference to their own implicit or explicit judgments of it. This is why we referred above to subjective welfare. Consider a person who adores azartplay казино онлайн taste of pickles but dislikes onions. She might be said to associate higher azartplay казино онлайн with states of azartplay казино онлайн world in which, all else being equal, she consumes azartplay казино онлайн pickles and fewer onions than with states in which she consumes more onions and fewer pickles.

However, economists in the early 20th игра в дурака на деньги в интернете от recognized increasingly clearly that their main interest was in the market property of decreasing marginal demand, regardless of azartplay казино онлайн that was produced by satiated individual consumers or by some other factors.

In the 1930s this motivation of economists fit comfortably with the dominance of behaviourism and radical empiricism in psychology and in the philosophy of science respectively. Like other tautologies occurring in the foundations of scientific theories, this azartplay казино онлайн (recursive) дураки игра с выводом денег of definitions is useful not in itself, but because it helps to fix our contexts of inquiry.

When such theorists say that agents act so as to maximize their utility, they want this to be part of the definition of what it is to be an agent, not an empirical claim about possible inner states and motivations.

Economists and others who interpret game theory in terms of RPT should not think of game theory as in any way an empirical account of the motivations of some flesh-and-blood actors (such as actual people).

On this interpretation, game theory could not be refuted by any empirical observations, since it is not an empirical theory in the first place. Of course, observation and experience could lead someone favoring this azartplay казино онлайн to conclude that game theory is of little help in describing actual human behavior.

Some other theorists understand the point of game theory differently. They azartplay казино онлайн game theory as providing an explanatory account of actual human strategic reasoning processes.]



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